Integration or Transformation?

A cross-national study of information and communication technology in school education


Appendix 6.12

6.12Examples of policy document analysis

6.12.1 Analysis of Circular 4/98 (England)

Text from source



Circular number 4/98

Annex B: Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for the Use of Information and Communications Technology in Subject Teaching



This curriculum is different from those for primary and secondary English, mathematics and science because it does not relate to a particular subject. It is concerned with the ways in which Information and Communications Technology (ICT) can be used effectively in the teaching of other subjects in the pupils’ National Curriculum.

ICT is more than just another teaching tool. Its potential for improving the quality and standards of pupils’ education is significant. Equally, its potential is considerable for supporting teachers, both in their everyday classroom role, for example by reducing the time occupied by the administration associated with it, and in their continuing training and development. It covers the wide range of ICT now available, e.g. computers, the Internet, CDROM and other software, television and radio, video, cameras and other equipment. While it is recognised that many teachers will also be responsible for developing pupils’ IT capability using ICT, that is not the focus of this document.

The requirements will come into effect from September 1998. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.

For primary trainees, this curriculum applies to training in the core subjects (English, mathematics and science) and their specialist subject(s). For secondary trainees, this curriculum applies to training in their specialist subject(s).

The curriculum aims, in particular, to equip every newly qualified teacher with the knowledge, skills and understanding to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching particular subjects. Although this curriculum applies to all trainees, the knowledge, understanding and skills required will often differ between subjects or phases. Some examples are given in the document to illustrate particular points, but it is the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the ways trainees are taught to use ICT are firmly rooted within the relevant subject and phase, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically or as an end in itself.




In order to support providers in this, the TTA proposes to produce separate exemplification, by subject and phase, which can be used in conjunction with this document.

With the introduction of the National Grid for learning, it becomes even more important for newly qualified teachers (NQTs) to be confident and competent in using ICT effectively in their teaching. The ITT curriculum will also form the basis of the Lottery-funded training for serving teachers in the use of ICT.

Providers of ITT must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to use ICT effectively in teaching subject(s) are judged to have successfully completed an ITT course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

The National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching should therefore be read alongside the relevant ITT National Curriculum, where applicable, and the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

Every attempt has been made to “future-proof” the content of this document, but ICT is changing rapidly and it will be necessary to keep the curriculum under close review. In order to make the requirements of the ICT curriculum clear to a wide readership, the use of jargon and technical language has been avoided, but the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

The curriculum is in two sections.


This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use. This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to the use of ICT in subject teaching. Trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described in this section.

















Rationale: Argues for the pedagogical rationale.









Status: the standards are mandatory for pre-service teacher training























these standards will also apply to existing qualified teachers.

























6.12.2    Analysis of student standards (Estonia)


Source document


Chapter 3.

Information technology and teaching media

Part 1. Information technology



§ 351. Information technology as a passing subject


(1)    Developing the competence of information technology in the comprehensive school is not connected with any concrete platform of hard‑ or software, producing company or set of software.


§ 352. The Aims of Learning


The aims of teaching information technology as a passing subject are:

Status: mandatory to achieve school-leaving certificate


1)     The student understands the economic, social and ethical aspects connected with using information technology;

2)     The student masters the skills of using information technology independently. omandab infotehnoloogiavahendite iseseisva kasutamise oskused [sic].


§ 353. The School‑leavers' Competence by the End of Comprehensive School and Gymnasium


The school‑leaver:

Rationale: economic, social & ethical


1)   uses effectively and skillfully the input devices of the computer (mouse, keyboard), output devices (printer, monitor) and the memory devices (diskette, CD‑ROM, hard drive);

2)   knows how to use the graphical interface of the operation system;

3)   knows how to use the local network and administer the document files;

Categories of skill:




4) can use the correct terminology in his mother tongue when speaking about information technology, can describe the simpler problems connected with hard‑ and software;



5)   behaves ethically and correctly when using information technology, is aware of the consequences of misuse information technology;

6)    handles the hard‑ and software with responsibility and economically;

7)   can describe the role of information technology in the society and the importance of that from the aspect of choice of vocation;

Social, moral & ethical


8)   is able to plan, create and present interesting texts, multimedia presentations, advertisements etc that have been made independently or in co‑operation with classmates using information technology;

Publishing & creativity

9)   uses information technology effectively to find information and to communicate on academic aims, chooses the best way to solve the problem or task;

Research & organisation of information

10)  understands the necessity of critical evaluation of the Internet resources (is it correct, appropriate, sufficient and objective);

Critical discrimination of digital resources


11)  can manage with easier statistical analysis with information technology (frequency, average, diagrams).

Problem Solving