Integration or Transformation?
A cross-national study of information and communication technology in school education
The study used the interview method to obtain data from members of the expert panel, school ICT coordinators and classroom teachers with similar questions appropriate for the perspective of each kind of participant. The questions below were sent to each participant where possible in advance of the agreed interview time. Neutral probes were used to elicit further responses where necessary.
Questions for national level experts (expert panel)
1. Has your country ever had, and does it now have a policy framework guiding the use of information technology by students in all curriculum areas?
2. What is the current form and jurisdiction of this policy?
3. What were the political, policy and administrative forces operating on the process of its gestation?
4. In your opinion, what were the objectives, both stated and covert, of the bodies which constructed, endorsed and authorised the policy?
5. When was the policy authorised at the highest relevant level in your country?
6. What was the process by which the policy was implemented? Which organisations were responsible for which components?
7. In your view, how would you describe the implementation process?
8. To what degree did the implementation achieve the stated policy aims, in terms of depth and breadth?
9. What were the consequences of the implementation pattern achieved?
10. Are revisions of the policy planned, and if so, what direction are they likely to take?
11. Can you comment as to whether teacher professional development initiatives have in general preceded or followed related curriculum strategy announcements?
12. Are there particular schools, documents or other resources you can recommend I refer to as examples of what you have told me?
Questions for school ICT coordinators
1. Does the school have a policy for the use of information technology across all subject areas?
2. If so, how was it formed?
3. What policies are there at school district, county, state and national levels that contribute to the way in which IT is used across the curriculum in the school?
4. How many students are enrolled?
5. What are the highest and lowest grades taught?
6. What is the level of computer provision (in terms of the number of students to each multi-media computer), and what proportion of the computer equipment is internet-connected?
7. What proportion of the students would you estimate have access to a computer outside school?
8. Do your policies cover the relationship between home and school computing?
Questions for classroom teachers
1. What are the numbers of boys and girls in the class, and what are their grades?
2. Which parts of the curriculum are computers mostly used to support?
3. What modes of computer use would a typical student in this class normally engage in over a period of one week? (from Publishing, Problem Solving, Communicating, Researching, Independent Learning).
4. What are they doing with computers this week?
5. What do the students think of the way in which they are asked to use computers in school?
6. Do any of the students undertake learning activities related to classwork using computers at home?